It refers to a specific specialty area in urology in which small internal endoscopes and instrumentation are used to see into the urinary tract and perform surgery. Urology is a surgical specialty which deals with diseases of the male and female urinary tract and the male reproductive organs.

Endourology helps treat Stones located within the Kidney, Urinary Bladder, Ureters or the Urethra, Urinary tract obstruction, Hematuria, tumors involving the Urinary bladder ureter kidneys etc or obstruction due to enlarged prostate/strictures of urethra.


This is one of the most common methods currently employed in the removal of kidney stones. This procedure involves a minimally-invasive procedure to remove stones from the kidney by a small puncture wound (up to about 1 cm) through the skin. It is most suitable to remove stones of more than 2 cm in size. It can be used for stones of any size. Multiple tracts maybe required for complex stones.


Mini-PCNL is a recent modification of standard PCNL wherein a smaller tract (14 – 18 fr) is utilised to remove kidney stones. It is often used in combination with laser energy source to break the stones. The lesser the size of the tract the lesser are the bleeding complications associated with this surgery.


This technique utilises an even smaller tract size of 11 – 13 fr. 


This technique is utilies a 4.8 fr all seeing needle called the microperc to break kidney stones with the help of laser energy. These recent modifications of standard PCNL are the subject of extensive research and study and guidelines for utilisation of these techniques are in the process of development.


This procedure refers to surgery done inside the kidney with a viewing tube, better known as a fiber optic endoscope. Due to recent technological strides in this field, it has become possible to implement Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery (RIRS) to manage kidney stones.

Using RIRS, this procedure can also be performed to remove kidney stones, which can be seen through the endoscope and later crushed or blasted using an ultrasound probe or evaporated using a laser probe or could be manually removed using a pair of small forceps.


BIPOLAR SALINE TURP prostate surgery is a minimally invasive treatment to remove the enlarged portion of the prostate. This procedure is also done endoscopically . The procedure uses a specially designed cautery  to remove tissue that is blocking urine flow through the prostate. The main advantage of this procedure is that it can be done for high risk cardiac patients with lesser risk of complications like TURP syndrome .


TURBT is a procedure in which bladder tumors can be removed from the bladder wall. This is a procedure performed completely with a scope that is inserted through the urethra into the bladder.


Ureteroscopy (URS) is a form of minimally invasive surgery using a small telescope that is passed through the urethra and into the ureter to remove a stone. Often the stone requires fragmentation with a laser which then allows the smaller fragments to remove with a grasping device.


Cystolitholapaxy is a procedure to break up bladder stones into smaller pieces and remove them. Bladder stones are minerals that have built up in the bladder. Ultrasonic waves or lasers may be delivered through a tool called a cystoscope to break up the stones.

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